This post is not very well thought-out, nor am I qualified to write it, but it’s something I remember pondering while I was traveling in Asia, particularly in China. Many of the distinct cultures of the world today are the result of thousands of years of near isolation. Chinese culture is a good example, as China was mostly cut off from the rest of the world for thousands of years, and their culture is unique in many ways as a result. Regions that were more integrated and connected (Europe) show similarities in culture more than more isolated regions or countries.
So it almost seems as if the development of culture stems from isolation and the resulting asymmetries of information. For example, the technologies of warfare developed in parallel in different parts of the world , and often when those cultures collided in battle, one force had an overwhelming advantage because their technology had taken a different path and was far superior. Improvement to society of any kind, whether scientific, medical, military, political etc. might take centuries to reach another culture.
Contrast this with today: virtually any improvement or development can spread around the world in a matter of weeks or months. Fashion, art, and political changes now also reach a global audience, influencing cultures around the world. Driven by the Internet, globalization, increasing democratization, and increasing use of English worldwide, we now enjoy a global spread of information that takes hours instead of centuries. Over time, will this process result in the gradual homogenization of culture?